But doesn’t cooking maca destroy the nutrients?
This is the most common mis-conception about maca and a lack of understanding of maca biochemistry and it’s medicinal mode of action. Almost all clinical studies demonstrating positive health effects of maca have been performed with maca prepared in it’s traditional manner (boiling or heating in water) or with gelatinized or extracted maca. From this it is evident that the active medicinal components are not denatured with heat and new studies suggest that the heating is actually necessary for production of the various health enhancing metabolites. Dr Gustavo F. Gonzales who heads the Department of Biological and Physiological Sciences and High Altitude Research at the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia stated in his comprehensive biochemical review of maca:
“The process of preparation of maca is important to obtain adequate biological effects. Traditionally maca is boiled or extracted in alcohol before it is consumed. In experimental studies, aqueous extract of maca is only effective after boiling pulverized maca hypocotyls in water….The boiling process seems to increase active metabolites.”
Most people in our western culture will put raw maca powder in a raw smoothie or raw food
In Junin, Peru maca has traditionally been cooked or consumed as a tea for medicinal benefits
How does cooking maca make it more bioactive?
To understand this you must understand the reason we consume maca. Maca is a medicine, it is a medicine for prevention of disease and for treatment to bring balance to our endocrine system. The main bioactives inside maca that give this physiological response are unique to this plant and are called macamides. There are 17 known macamides and each of them work directly with your endocannabinoid and endocrine system to produce positive health benefits for your body (Read more here).
The science has shown that the bioactive macamides in maca are heat activated molecules
Their biosynthesis occurs from breakdown of the heat sensitive glucosinolates (1) in the fresh maca bulb (Read more here). During initial drying of maca post-harvest there is hydrolytic processing of lipids and glucosinolates and a subsequent release of significant amounts of free unsaturated fatty acids (9, 10) and a key biochemical called benzylamine (7). Both of these compounds are precursors of, and whose accumulation correlates well with, the synthesis of bioactive macamides (11, 12, 13). What is now known is that the coupling of fatty acids with the benzylamine intermediate 7 (below), is a thermodynamic process (ie. it requires heat).
Scheme showing the breakdown of heat sensitive glucosinolates to the formation of bioactive macamides
So it seems the Inca were right and the evidence now suggests that heating maca makes it more potent and bioactive. It also demonstrates that when it comes to traditional medicines it pays to ask the people with 2000 years of experience how to prepare it.
What is wrong with eating raw maca?
As outlined raw maca accumulates mold that produces toxic aflatoxins. Aflatoxins are cancer causing molecules that can remain in the raw powder of maca unless it is cooked. Eating raw maca is risky and can cause serious harm to your health and upset your gut biome (Read about examples of this here or here). In essence it can do more harm than good.
Raw maca root contains high levels of starch (amylose and amylopectin). Starch can often be hard to digest if eaten raw and may give some people symptoms such as bloating, gas, distention and abdominal discomfort.
Maca has always been traditionally cooked or heated and studies show that the health benefits are not diminished by these processes, if anything they are enhanced. The active components responsible for most of the medicinal benefits of Maca (FAAH inhibitors, FFA’s and other metabolites) are heat activated. So if you are eating raw maca you may not be getting the health benefits you desire
Our own analysis demonstrated that a commercially available sample of raw maca in New Zealand had 2x higher bacterial concentrations and 8x higher mould concentrations compared to our gelatinised (pre-cooked) sample
The texture and flavour of gelatinised (pre-cooked) maca powder is more sweet, caramel and palatable. Raw maca has a more tart taste and often forms grainy starch sediments in solution when its not cooked, creating an unpleasant texture and flavour
So what is the solution?
The solution is to follow the tradition and the science and consume maca the way it should be consumed – cooked. So either buy and cook raw maca powder or buy pre-cooked powder (gelatinised or activated) that you can consume straight in raw foods or be cooked again. (NB. Gelatinised maca does not contain gelatin, gelatinising is the process of heating to remove starch – 100% vegan friendly)
Written by Dr Corin Storkey Founder and Director of Seleno Health. www.selenohealth.com